What is the importance of femur length during pregnancy?



Early in pregnancy, certain ultrasound findings such as the presence of a yolk sac and the crown-to-rump ratio are used to help determine the health of a pregnancy, the gestational age, and the possibility for pregnancy loss. After the first trimester, the embryo has developed into a fetus and new markers are used to narrow in on gestational age and assess the health of the baby.

Femur Length Measurement

Among the markers used for assessing fetal growth and health is the length of the baby’s femur, the long bone in the thigh. Measured from the blunt end of the bone to the shaft, the femur length is generally measured in millimeters.

A short femur length finding on ultrasound may indicate the need for further testing to rule out certain conditions. But this measurement has many limitations, from human error to outdated ultrasound equipment to normal variation. Femur length is only one variable among many that should be used to make determinations about a baby’s health.

It is important to know that in the majority of these pregnancies (73%), parents will go on to have a full-term delivery of a healthy baby whose size is appropriate for gestational age.

Possible Concerns With Short Femur Length

When femur length is below the fifth percentile, parents may be advised about a number of potential atypical pregnancy outcomes. A short femur length identified on ultrasound in the second or third trimester raises concern for certain conditions in the fetus or the pregnancy.

Dwarfism

Fetuses with shorter-than-expected femur length have been found to be at higher risk for skeletal dysplasia, otherwise known as dwarfism. This is different from short stature, which is a height that is three or more standard deviations below the mean for age but is proportional.

There are more than 200 disorders that can be categorized as skeletal dysplasia. All are characterized by a disproportionate skeleton due to cartilage and bone growth abnormalities.

Placental Insufficiency

Some studies have raised concerns about the sufficiency of the placenta to provide an adequate nutritional environment for fetuses with short femur lengths. Because of that, short femur length is linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetuses that are small for gestational age, babies born with low birth weight, and preterm birth.

Aneuploidies

A femur length that is shorter than expected can also be a soft marker for certain genetic conditions, such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), and trisomy 18 (Edward’s syndrome). Soft markers are indicators found on ultrasounds that are not abnormalities on their own, but characteristics that occur more often in fetuses with chromosomal trisomies.

Compared to high-level markers such as nuchal skin fold, femur length is considered a low-level marker for Down syndrome. The presence of any of these markers may simply indicate a need for more prenatal testing.

A Word From Verywell

It can be frightening to hear that your baby has a short femur length, or another marker of concern. However, in most cases, the outcome is still a healthy, full-term baby. If your doctor finds that your baby has a shorter than expected femur length, further testing may help you and your healthcare provider understand what this measurement means and how best to care for your baby during pregnancy, at birth, and beyond.

Verywell Family uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Smith M, Nicoll A. Perinatal outcomes following mid trimester detection of isolated short foetal femur length. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;38(5):727. doi:10.1080/01443615.2018.1444408

  2. Mailath-Pokorny M, Polterauer S, Worda K, Springer S, Bettelheim D. Isolated short fetal femur length in the second trimester and the association with adverse perinatal outcome: Experiences from a tertiary referral center. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0128820. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128820

  3. Bonafe L, Cormier-Daire V, Hall C, et al. Nosology and classification of genetic skeletal disorders: 2015 revision. Am J Med Gen Part A. 2015;167A(12):2869-92. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.37365

  4. D’Ambrosio V, Vena F, Marchetti C, et al. Midtrimester isolated short femur and perinatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2019;98(1):11-17. doi:10.1111/aogs.13470

  5. Mathiesen, JM, Aksglaede, L, Skibsted, L, Petersen, OB, Tabor, A. Outcome of fetuses with short femur length detected at second-trimester anomaly scan: A national survey. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014;44(2):160-5. doi:10.1002/uog.13286

By Krissi Danielsson

Krissi Danielsson, MD is a doctor of family medicine and an advocate for those who have experienced miscarriage. 

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FAQs

When should I worry about femur length?

A femur length that is shorter than expected can also be a soft marker for certain genetic conditions, such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), and trisomy 18 (Edward’s syndrome)

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What does long femur length mean in pregnancy?

Femur length (FL) Measures the longest bone in the body and reflects the longitudinal growth of the fetus. Its usefulness is similar to the BPD. It increases from about 1.5 cm at 14 weeks to about 7.8 cm at term

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Do Down syndrome babies have long legs?

Short stature is a well-recognized component of Down syndrome. The femur lengths of affected fetuses have been observed to be shorter than normal, with a ratio of actual to expected femur length of less than 0.91 indicating a high risk of trisomy.

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What does a long femur mean?

People with a longer femur bone may be more likely to have a higher level of osteocalcin; the longer femur bone may therefore explain their lower risk of developing diabetes

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How accurate is femur length in ultrasound?

Abstract. It is well established that ultrasound measurement of femur length and biparietal diameter are comparably accurate estimators of gestational age when obtained in the first half of pregnancy. Both estimators, however, become less accurate later in pregnancy.

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Does fetal femur length predict height?

For example, third trimester femur length has been found to predict well childhood height (Cacciari et al., 2000) and fetal femur length, and growth rate between 18 and 38 weeks has been found to be inversely associated with childhood blood pressure (Blake et al., 2002).

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Are long femurs good for anything?

Long femurs are a biomechanical disadvantage in the barbell squat exercise, but an advantage in cycling due to torque (measure of force on a rotational object). Short femurs are a big advantage for squatting, but a disadvantage in cycling.

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What are signs of Down syndrome on ultrasound?

Certain features detected during a second trimester ultrasound exam are potential markers for Down’s syndrome, and they include dilated brain ventricles, absent or small nose bone, increased thickness of the back of the neck, an abnormal artery to the upper extremities, bright spots in the heart, ‘bright’ bowels, mild …

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How do you know if your femurs are long?

The best way to tell if long femurs are your problem (as well as a short torso) is to find a chair, bench or stool that ? when you sit on it, your thighs are perfectly parallel to the floor. If they are not parallel (meaning, the hips are higher OR lower than the knees), this test won’t be fool proof.

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Does long femur affect squat?

Well, the longer your femur is, the more your torso will have to pitch forward in order to keep the bar over the midfoot as you squat and stand back up. Due to this particular anatomy, lifters with longer femurs relative to their torso will likely find it difficult to back squat in the high-bar setup.

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How can I improve my fetal femur length?

(14) established the role of milk on growth of femur length of foetus, showing that higher milk intake is related to better growth of femur length of foetus.

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Can femur measurements be wrong?

Errors in ultrasound-measured femur lengths can be shown to result from the focal characteristics of the equipment as well as the orientation and distance of the bone from the transducer. These differences can produce errors in estimation of gestational age as large as ten weeks.

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Significance of Short Femur Length in Pregnancy

Reasons to Stay Calm When Short Femur Length Is Found Early in pregnancy, certain ultrasound findings such as the presence of a yolk sac and the crown-to-rump ratio are used to help determine the health of a pregnancy, the gestational age, and the possibility for pregnancy loss. After the first trimester, the embryo has developed into a fetus and new markers are used to narrow in on gestational age and assess the health of the baby. Femur Length Measurement Among the markers used for assessing fetal growth and health is the length of the baby’s femur, the long bone in the thigh. Measured from the blunt end of the bone to the shaft, the femur length is generally measured in millimeters. A short femur length finding on ultrasound may indicate the need for further testing to rule out certain conditions. But this measurement has many limitations, from human error to outdated ultrasound equipment to normal variation. Femur length is only one variable among many that should be used to make determinations about a baby’s health. It is important to know that in the majority of these pregnancies (73%), parents will go on to have a full-term delivery of a healthy baby whose size is appropriate for gestational age. Possible Concerns With Short Femur Length When femur length is below the fifth percentile, parents may be advised about a number of potential atypical pregnancy outcomes. A short femur length identified on ultrasound in the second or third trimester raises concern for certain conditions in the fetus or the pregnancy. Dwarfism Fetuses with shorter-than-expected femur length have been found to be at higher risk for skeletal dysplasia, otherwise known as dwarfism. This is different from short stature, which is a height that is three or more standard deviations below the mean for age but is proportional. There are more than 200 disorders that can be categorized as skeletal dysplasia. All are characterized by a disproportionate skeleton due to cartilage and bone growth abnormalities. Placental Insufficiency Some studies have raised concerns about the sufficiency of the placenta to provide an adequate nutritional environment for fetuses with short femur lengths. Because of that, short femur length is linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetuses that are small for gestational age, babies born with low birth weight, and preterm birth. Aneuploidies A femur length that is shorter than expected can also be a soft marker for certain genetic conditions, such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), and trisomy 18 (Edward’s syndrome). Soft markers are indicators found on ultrasounds that are not abnormalities on their own, but characteristics that occur more often in fetuses with chromosomal trisomies. Compared to high-level markers such as nuchal skin fold, femur length is considered a low-level marker for Down syndrome. The presence of any of these markers may simply indicate a need for more prenatal testing. A Word From Verywell It can be frightening to hear that your baby has a short femur length, or another marker of concern. However, in most cases, the outcome is still a healthy, full-term baby. If your doctor finds that your baby has a shorter than expected femur length, further testing may help you and your healthcare provider understand what this measurement means and how best to care for your baby during pregnancy, at birth, and beyond. Verywell Family uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy. Smith M, Nicoll A. Perinatal outcomes following mid trimester detection of isolated short foetal femur length. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;38(5):727. doi:10.1080/01443615.2018.1444408 Mailath-Pokorny M, Polterauer S, Worda K, Springer S, Bettelheim D. Isolated short fetal femur length in the second trimester and the association with adverse perinatal outcome: Experiences from a tertiary referral center. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0128820. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128820 Bonafe L, Cormier-Daire V, Hall C, et al. Nosology and classification of genetic skeletal disorders: 2015 revision. Am J…

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What is the importance of femur length during pregnancy?

What is the importance of femur length during pregnancy?  Answered by:  Dr Ashok Khurana    |  Director, Genitourinary and Vascular Ultrasound,The Ultrasound Lab,New Delhi Q: Is it possible to know from an ultrasound whether the child in the womb in his/her 8-month stage is going to be short or tall in height after birth? What is the role of femur bone in this aspect? What steps can be taken in case if the child is short? Is there any special technique or medicine for proper growth and to increase the height? Assuming that all natal care is taken of during pregnancy. Please advise. A:Femur length or the length of the thighbone is an index of fetal growth in the uterus. In the last three months of pregnancy, the longer the bone, the longer is the length of the baby at birth. It is not an index of the final growth of the adult. A good nutritious diet and adequate amounts of rest and sleep are enough to achieve the growth potential of the unborn child. In a few pregnancies, extra care may be required. The Obstetrician would be the best person to decide on these factors. No medication can enhance the height. RELATED FAQ ………………. Advertisement ……………….   Home Remedies FAQ ASK OUR EXPERTS Using 0 of 1024 Possible characters Trending Topics Short videosBy Firework ………………. Advertisement ……………….

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Is it a problem if the femur of the fetus is small? – Doctor NDTV

Is it a problem if the femur of the fetus is small?  Answered by:  Dr Puneet Bedi    |  Obstetrics and Gynaecology Consultant, Apollo Hospital, New delhi Q: I am 23 weeks pregnant. I did a scan and the doctor told me that the femur of the fetus seems to be small. Is it a very serious thing? Please let me know about it. A:Your question can only be answered if you understand how the femur of the baby is measured and why. The femur is measured with an ultrasound. The measurement at best is approximate and the error can be plus/minus one mm (2 mm range) in the best of hands (the error is much more in inexperienced hands). Now these mm measurements are put against standard charts in the ultrasound machine software which is almost always calibrated against western standard measurements. As our babies are smaller than western babies there is bound to be a margin of error there as well. This figure thus measured in mm is converted into weeks(by western charts). Hence the estimations are at best approximate. Now that you understand the limitations of these measurements should you be bothered about whether the figure for femur length given to you is normal or not? Well no you should not be, nor in my opinion should the ultrasound doctor be sounding so worried. As two kids of the same age would vary in height and weight so would two babies of 22 weeks be. And only if all these considerations of natural variations are taken into account should a femur be called short. In general your height and that of your husband will decide whether your baby will have long or short femurs. In general if the discrepancy is more than three weeks should you be worried. (meaning at 22 weeks the femur length is less than 19). Even if that is so in all probability it is a short normal baby but you should get a chromosomal analysis done by fetal blood sampling and be in consultation with a fetal medicine specialist. From what you have written it does not seem to be an abnormal baby. RELATED FAQ ………………. Advertisement ……………….   Home Remedies FAQ ASK OUR EXPERTS Using 0 of 1024 Possible characters Trending Topics Short videosBy Firework ………………. Advertisement ……………….

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Long-bone growth in fetuses with Down syndrome – PubMed

Long-bone growth in fetuses with Down syndrome – PubMed Long-bone growth in fetuses with Down syndrome J FitzSimmons et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Nov. Abstract Short stature is a well-recognized component of Down syndrome. The femur lengths of affected fetuses have been observed to be shorter than normal, with a ratio of actual to expected femur length of less than 0.91 indicating a high risk of trisomy. To further evaluate this finding we have determined the relationship between limb lengths and gestational age in 37 postmortem fetal specimens with trisomy 21. Control values were obtained from 174 normal fetuses. Measurements of the femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, and ulna were made from roentgenograms or by direct measurement of the bone. Most measurements for each bone of the affected fetuses fell below the normal regression line for that bone, but only 3/37 femurs, 4/32 tibias, 5/32 fibulas, 9/32 humeri, 10/32 radii, and 7/32 ulnas fell more than 2 SDs below the mean. The ratios of actual to expected femur lengths were computed and six fetuses with Down syndrome (16.2%) had ratios less than 0.91. The bones of the extremities of fetuses with trisomy 21 are shorter than normal, but the differences are relatively small. The ratio of actual/expected femur lengths was a less efficient predictor of Down syndrome than were either maternal age or maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein tests. The upper extremity bones were shorter than normal more often than were the bones of the lower extremity, and this finding should be explored further in a prospective study. Similar articles Adjusting the risk for trisomy 21 by a simple ultrasound method using fetal long-bone biometry. Vintzileos AM, Egan JF, Smulian JC, Campbell WA, Guzman ER, Rodis JF. Vintzileos AM, et al. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Jun;87(6):953-8. doi: 10.1016/0029-7844(96)00058-0. Obstet Gynecol. 1996. PMID: 8649705 Comparison of humerus length with femur length in fetuses with Down syndrome. Rodis JF, Vintzileos AM, Fleming AD, Ciarleglio L, Nardi DA, Feeney L, Scorza WE, Campbell WA, Ingardia C. Rodis JF, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Oct;165(4 Pt 1):1051-6. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(91)90468-7. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991. PMID: 1835298 Cross-sectional study of fetal long-bone length in an Iranian population at 17-25 weeks of gestation. Kasraeian M, Shahraki HR, Asadi N, Vafaei H, Sameni S. Kasraeian M, et al. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017 Apr;137(1):20-25. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12099. Epub 2017 Feb 3. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017. PMID: 28083947 Adjusting the risk for trisomy 21 on the basis of second-trimester ultrasonography. Vintzileos AM, Egan JF. Vintzileos AM, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Mar;172(3):837-44. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(95)90008-x. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995. PMID: 7892872 Review. First and second trimester sonography: an American perspective. Scorza WE, Vintzileos A. Scorza WE, et al. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 1996 May-Jun;41(3):288-92. Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud. 1996. PMID: 8799758 Review. Cited by Age-at-Death Estimation of Fetuses and Infants in Forensic Anthropology: A New “Coupling” Method to Detect Biases Due to Altered Growth Trajectories. Niel M, Chaumoître K, Adalian P. Niel M, et al. Biology (Basel). 2022 Jan 27;11(2):200. doi: 10.3390/biology11020200. Biology (Basel). 2022. PMID: 35205067 Free PMC article. Sonographic measurement of ear length among normal fetuses of pregnant Igbo women in port…

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Fetal femur length is influenced by maternal dairy intake in …

Fetal femur length is influenced by maternal dairy intake in pregnant African American adolescents ABSTRACT Background: Pregnant adolescents may compete with their developing fetuses for the nutrients required for optimal bone mineralization.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect in pregnant African American adolescents of maternal dairy intake at entry into prenatal care on fetal femur development between 20 and 34 wk of gestation.Design: A 10-y retrospective chart review was carried out in 1120 pregnant African American adolescents (≤ 17 y of age) who had received care at an inner-city maternity clinic between 1990 and 2000. Generalized multiple linear regression models were used to address significant determinants of fetal femur length after control for gestational age, biparietal diameter, maternal age and height, and prepregnancy body mass index. Dairy intake was estimated at entry into prenatal care on the basis of 24-h dietary recall and a food-frequency questionnaire. Data from 350 subjects, for whom data on all variables were available, were included in the model.Results: In these pregnant adolescents with a mean (± SD) age of 15.9 ± 1.1 y (range: 12.7–17.9 y), dairy intake had a significant positive effect on fetal femur growth after adjustment for gestational age, biparietal diameter, maternal age and height, and prepregnancy body mass index (P = 0.001, R2 = 0.97). Fetal femur length was significantly lower in the lowest dairy-intake group (< 2 servings/d) than in the highest dairy-intake group (> 3 servings/d), and a dose-response relation was suggested in the intermediate dairy-intake group (2–3 servings/d; P = 0.089).Conclusion: These data suggest that consumption of < 2 servings of dairy products/d by pregnant adolescents may negatively affect fetal bone development by limiting the amount of calcium provided to the fetus. INTRODUCTION Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is known to have a significant effect on fetal growth and development (1–3). Under situations of reduced nutrient intake or increased nutrient requirements, competition between the mother and the fetus may limit the availability of the nutrients required for optimal fetal growth (4, 5).At present, the effect of maternal calcium intake on fetal skeletal development is not well defined. Previous studies found that maternal malnutrition adversely affects not only the bone density of the mother herself but also that of the newborn (6). Moreover, weak evidence supports an effect of calcium supplementation on fetal growth (7), and calcium supplementation during pregnancy increases the bone density of the neonate in undernourished mothers (8) and women with habitually low dietary calcium intakes (9).In pregnant adolescents, calcium intakes may be limited by poor maternal diet and by the need to retain enough calcium to support both maternal and fetal skeletal mineralization. A recent study indicated that although female adolescents generally have higher concentrations of indirect markers of bone formation than do adult women, under conditions of limited dietary calcium availability, less pronounced differences were found during pregnancy (10). In addition, heel ultrasound data indicate bone loss at trabecular sites over the course of pregnancy, and the magnitude of this loss is greatest in pregnant adolescents (11). The greater loss among adolescents is consistent with the demands of fetal mineralization and the continued demands of the maternal skeleton during growth (11).Pregnant adolescents, especially those who have not yet reached peak adult height and peak bone mass, may be particularly vulnerable to calcium insufficiency during pregnancy (12). In this age group, competition for calcium between the adolescent and the fetus may limit optimal bone mineralization in both the mother and the fetus. To address the effect of early childbearing on fetal bone development, we examined potential predictors of fetal femur development in...

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Overgrowth of baby in the womb may begin week – EurekAlert!

Overgrowth of baby in the womb may begin weeks before women are tested for maternal diabetes The excessive growth of a baby in the womb, a common complication of gestational diabetes, begins weeks before women are tested for the disease, according to new research being presented at this year’s European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) Annual Meeting in Barcelona, Spain (16-20 September). The analysis of almost 8,000 singleton pregnancies in South Korea revealed that in women subsequently diagnosed with gestational diabetes, abdominal fetal growth was already abnormally large between 20 and 24 weeks–more than 4 weeks before the recommended screening time. Given the high risk of complications for both mother and baby from maternal diabetes, screening women earlier on in pregnancy is likely to improve their health outcomes, researchers say. “Abdominal overgrowth of the baby in the womb is believed to indicate fetal obesity, not just a big baby”, explains Dr Yoo Lee Kim from CHA University, Republic of Korea who led the research. “Our findings suggest that diagnosing gestational diabetes and implementing interventions to reduce the risk of excessive fetal growth such as diet and exercise earlier in pregnancy may be necessary to prevent harm to mothers and their babies.” Gestational diabetes, a temporary form of diabetes in which hormonal changes disrupt insulin function, affects 3-20% of pregnant women, with those who are obese and/or older at greater risk. Women who develop gestational diabetes are seven times as likely to develop type 2 diabetes in the years following pregnancy. If left undiagnosed and untreated, the condition can also cause the unborn child to have increased birthweight, higher body fat, and lower insulin sensitivity, and increases the likelihood of obesity and diabetes in later life. Current guidelines in South Korea, the UK, and USA recommend that all pregnant women are screened for gestational diabetes using an oral glucose test at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. However, previous research suggests that excessive fetal growth can already be detected at the time of screening (24-28 weeks), especially in older women and those with obesity. Whether the onset of this fetal growth disorder predates the recommended screening time is unclear. To determine whether fetal overgrowth is already present at 20-24 weeks’ gestation, researchers analysed medical records of 7,820 pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic of Cha Gangnam Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. Ultrasound scans were used to measure the fetuses’ abdominal circumference, head size, and femur length at least 4 weeks before screening for gestational diabetes (at 22 weeks’ gestation; 7297 scans), at the same time as the screening test (26 weeks; 5388 scans), and at near term (35 weeks; 5404 scans). At the 22nd week of pregnancy, ultrasound scans revealed that the fetuses of mothers subsequently diagnosed with gestational diabetes were already significantly larger in abdominal circumference than the babies of women with normal glucose tolerance, and they remained abnormally large through the 35th week of pregnancy. However, head size and femur length were not significantly different between the two groups. Even among women without diabetes, the babies of mothers who were older or obese were at far greater risk of being abnormally large in abdominal circumference at the 22 week scan, but not in younger and non-obese women. Dr Kim concludes: “Early screening and careful monitoring may be particularly beneficial for obese and older mothers, as fetal abdominal growth is already abnormal at 5 months in these high-risk women, meaning that their babies are already large at the time of diagnosis.” This is an observational study, so no firm conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect, and the authors point to several limitations including that the study was done in a single centre in South Korea which…

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Outcome of Fetuses with Diagnosis of Isolated Short Femur in …

Outcome of Fetuses with Diagnosis of Isolated Short Femur in the Second Half of PregnancyInternational Scholarly Research Notices/2012/Article/Clinical Study | Open AccessJosé Morales-Roselló1and Núria Peralta LLorens1Academic Editor: H. Rehder, A. CanelladaReceived18 Nov 2011Accepted03 Jan 2012Published17 Apr 2012Objectives. To assess the outcome of fetuses with isolated short femur detected at 19–41 weeks and determine to what extent this incidental finding should be a cause of concern in fetuses with a normal previous follow-up. Methods. 156 fetuses with isolated short femur were compared with a control group of 637 fetuses with normal femur length. FL values were converted into 𝑍 -scores and classified into 4 groups: control group: 𝑍 -score over −2, group 1: 𝑍 -score between −2 and −3, group 2: 𝑍 -score between −3 and −4, and group 3: 𝑍 -score below −4. FL values were plotted with the curves representing 𝑍 -scores −2, −3, and −4. To assess fetal outcome, the frequency of SGA, IUGR, abnormal umbilical Doppler (AUD), Down’s syndrome, and skeletal dysplasia was determined for each group after delivery, and the relative risk in comparison with the control group was obtained. Finally, ROC curves were drawn in order to evaluate the FL diagnostic ability for the conditions appearing with increased frequency. Results. SGA, IUGR, and AUD were more frequent in the fetuses with short femur. Conversely, none of them presented Down’s syndrome or skeletal dysplasia. According to ROC analysis, FL measurement behaved as a good diagnostic test for SGA and IUGR. Conclusions. A short femur diagnosis in a fetus with an otherwise normal follow-up determines just a higher risk of being small (SGA or IUGR).1. IntroductionDiagnosis of isolated femoral shortening during the second half of pregnancy has so far been considered a cause for concern as it has been related with Down’s syndrome (DS) or skeletal dysplasia (SKD). Although DS can be easily ruled out with amniocentesis, the indication of this technique remains unclear as the procedure risk may overcome in this circumstance the incidence of the disease. Also, knowing if a short femur is the first clue of an SKD is cumbersome, unless pregnancy advances and shortening worsens or any of the accompanying signs is present. In a complete absence of these signs, many of the SKDs are diagnosed after delivery. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the outcome of fetuses with diagnosis of isolated short femur during the second half of pregnancy and determine to what extent anxiety is justified in a low-risk fetal population with uneventful pregnancy controls.2. Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively studied 156 fetuses with sonographic diagnosis of isolated short femur (FL 𝑍 -score below −2 and absence of other morphological anomalies) performed between 19 and 41 weeks of gestation and compared them with a control group of 637 normal fetuses (FL 𝑍 -score over −2). To avoid biases only one examination per fetus was included in the study and conclusions were based only on relative risks (RRs) with the control group. All fetuses presented an accurate gestational age according to a first trimester crown rump length and underwent a normal and uneventful pregnancy follow-up, including a first trimester DS screening with a combined method (nuchal translucency, β-HCG, and PAPP-A) and a midpregnancy anomaly scan. Fetal examination included a complete biometry (BPD, OFD, HC, AC, and FL) and a Doppler assessment of the umbilical artery resistance index.To avoid gestational influences and make comparisons feasible, FL values were also converted into 𝑍 -scores according to the following formula: 𝑍 -score = (value − mean value)/SD and were posteriorly classified in 4 groups: control group ( 𝑛 = 6 3 7 ) included fetuses with 𝑍 -score over −2, group 1 ( 𝑛 = 1 1 4 ) included fetuses with 𝑍 -score between −2 and −3, group 2 ( 𝑛 = 2 7 ) included fetuses with 𝑍 -score between −3 and −4, and finally group 3 ( 𝑛 = 1 5 ) included fetuses with 𝑍 -score below −4. Raw…

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Very low femur length! Very worried – Netmums

Very low femur length! Very worriedEmma T(1492)15/04/2015 at 9:35 amHi ladies,At my 20 week scan I was told my baby had a very low femur length,

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Maternal and paternal height and BMI and patterns of fetal …

Maternal and paternal height and BMI and patterns of fetal growth: The Pune Maternal Nutrition StudyUnder a Creative Commons licenseOpen accessAbstractWe examined the differential associations of each parent’s height and BMI with fetal growth, and examined the pattern of the associations through gestation. Data are from 557 term pregnancies in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Size and conditional growth outcomes from 17 to 29 weeks to birth were derived from ultrasound and birth measures of head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length and placental volume (at 17 weeks only). Parental height was positively associated with fetal head circumference and femur length. The associations with paternal height were detectible earlier in gestation (17–29 weeks) compared to the associations with maternal height. Fetuses of mothers with a higher BMI had a smaller mean head circumference at 17 weeks, but caught up to have larger head circumference at birth. Maternal but not paternal BMI, and paternal but not maternal height, were positively associated with placental volume. The opposing associations of placenta and fetal head growth with maternal BMI at 17 weeks could indicate prioritisation of early placental development, possibly as a strategy to facilitate growth in late gestation. This study has highlighted how the pattern of parental–fetal associations varies over gestation. Further follow-up will determine whether and how these variations in fetal/placental development relate to health in later life.KeywordsFetal growthParental determinantsIntrauterine effectsPlacentaBody mass indexCited by (0)Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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